Estate has unquestionably transformed modern life, creating new opportunities inside the areas of operate, study and leisure. On the other hand a number of complications have arisen as a result of this trend. Hanoi city is usually taken as an example of spontaneous urbanization transition.
Urbanization is definitely the process of the physical regarding a city either by migration from the country area or perhaps due to the organic increase of folks within the town. It also identifies the vary from a mostly agricultural economy to professional business and mass development. According to Antrop (2004), вЂќВ UrbanizationВ is a complexВ processВ of transform of rural lifestyles in urban onesвЂќ. The happening of urbanization has increased around the globe. It is influenced by the prefer to improve lifestyle and better job options. " The earth is going through massive urbanizationвЂќ, (Tannerfeldt and Ljung, 2006). Many concerns have occured from uncontrolled urbanization. A rapid increase in the traffic has become a prevalent pattern associated with an urbanization changeover and requires successful responses. This kind of essay will use the urbanization of Hanoi city as an example of uncontrolled growth, and highlight the results of urbanization in terms of traffic jam. This dissertation will talk about three relevant responses: first of all, a vehicle cost-free zone coverage; secondly, digital road costs and finally using a vehicle subgroup system. Finally, this essay will evaluate their relative effectiveness in terms of constraints. This kind of essay might help the local specialist to encounter the traffic congestion in Hanoi to some extent.
Hanoi, the main city of Vietnam, has experienced an intense changeover of estate. This was mainly induced by government seeing that 2000 to be able to develop the economic situation by encouraging visitors to leave agricultural lands for the urban area where sector has become the key source of work. Researchers anticipated that this procedure will increase by 6% annually in the next two decades (MoC, 2009, cited in LabbГ©, 2010). Figure (1) shows the problem at top hour in Hanoi city. It seems that this kind of movement has not been well organized because a number of problems possess arisen which may have had a unfavorable impact on different aspects of life.
Determine (1) Hanoi cyclists in peak hours (Hiep et al, 2012) Figure (1) Hanoi cyclists in peak hours (Hiep et approach, 2012)
III. Problems in Hanoi city
The spontaneous urbanization transaction inside the Hanoi town adds more burdens to the government. Traffic congestion is one of the greatest problems encountered by the expert in Hanoi. Due to the arrivals of many fresh migrants, highways have become packed with automobiles and bikers. According to the annual report from the Hanoi Department of Vehicles (2011) cited in Viet ( 2012 ), the quantity of the automobiles and motor bikes has drastically increased by 800 1, 000 to 3 million vehicles within the past 10 years (figure 2 ). The number of motorcycles has increased at a rate of 16% annually (Oanh et 's, 2008, reported in Child et 's, 2012). Traffic congestion has had obvious negative effects around the environment, individual health and our economy of Hanoi city. Throughout the peak hours both emissions and sound from the large number of cars is definitely significantly over acceptable levels. The time considered for trips has become much longer than before which mean more fuel and money are consumed (Hiep et approach, 2012). There have been different reactions to deal with the problem. Resource: Hanoi Section of Transportation, 2011, reported in Tuan, 2012) Figure (2) the quantity of cars and motorbikes in Hanoi by 2000 to 2010 Origin: Hanoi Department of Travel, 2011, cited in Tuan, 2012) Figure (2) the quantity of cars and motorbikes in Hanoi by 2000 to 2010
IV. Proposed solutions
Researchers include proposed three responses to alleviate the consequences of such an unplanned increase of...
References: Antrop, M. (2004). Landscape alter and the estate process in Europe. ScienceDirect, 67 (1вЂ“4), pp. 9вЂ“26.
App. gentemot. gov. sg (2010). Ministry of Transport. [Online] Recovered from: http://app.mot.gov.sg [ Accessed: thirty-one May 2013].
Hiep, V., Haifisch, T. and Hiep, Truck. (2012). Transportation demand management: A solution to minimize congestion and towards a sustainable transport in Hanoi city. Cookware transportation study society, 5st ATRANS, BANGKOK THAILAND, SCS 12-029.
LabbГ©, D. (2010). Facing the urban transition in Hanoi: recent downtown planning problems and pursuits. Institute National de la recherchГ© scientific Centre - Estate Culture Society, INRS University.
Son, L., Zhang, M. and Fujiwara, A. (2012). " The MATLAB Tool kit for GPS Data to Calculate Motorcycle", paper offered at Foreign Conference on Environment, Strength and Biotechnology, Singapore, Singapore: IPCBEE (2012), IACSIT Press, Vol. thirty-three.
Tannerfeldt, G., and Ljung, P. (2006). More Downtown, Less Poor. London: Earthscan.
The University of Auckland's Policy Examination and Analysis project (2012). Tuan Viet Mai. [Online] Retrieved by: http://policyprojects.ac.nz//tuanvietmai/ [ Seen: May 20, 2013 ].